Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think Book Review

Viktor Mayer-Schonberger and Kenneth Cukier are the author’s of Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think . Viktor Mayer-Schonberger has written more than one-hundred articles and eight books. His most recent is Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age, which was actually the winner of the 2010 Marshall McLuhan Award for Outstanding Book in Media ecology and also winner of the 2010 Don K. Price Award. He is also a professor at Oxford Internet Institute teaching Internet governance and regulation. Kenneth Cukier has writings on business and economics that appeared in Foreign Affairs, the New York Times, and the Financial Times. He is the data editor of the Economist as well. These two leading experts show clear examples of what big data really is, how it will change our lives forever, and how we can prevent ourselves from hazardous situations like the H1N1 virus. Thanks to big data, Google was able to predict the spread of the virus down to specific states just looking at what people were researching on the Internet.

“Big Data” is quantity with quality all on its own. The more information you have than the more useful it becomes. Big data is a revolution that forever changes the way society thinks about business, politics, health, and education. It is frightening because it also poses new threats due to privacy ending and the ability to predict our future. Thanks to big data retailers can now predict customers buying patterns. For example, Walmart used historical data and worked with the National Cash Register Company to uncover it’s month to month databases of past transactions. By doing this, they were able to notice that during hurricane season, customers were not only buying more flashlights, but they were also buying more Pop-Tarts. As hurricane season approached, Walmart would stock boxes of Pop-Tarts at the front of the store with the hurricane supplies. We no longer need to require a valid substantive hypothesis to being to be able to understand the world that we live in. We can also subject big data to be able to let it tell us what search queries are best proxies for the flue, whether an airfare is likely to soar, or what nervous families want to eat during a hurricane.

The word “data” means “given” in the Latin language, but today data is a description of something that allows it to be recorded, analyzed, and reorganized. This made it possible to be able to replicate human activity. Quantification enables prediction planning. For example, buildings can be reproduced from records of their dimensions and materials. An architect could alter particular dimensions while keeping others the same but creating a new design. It is unbelievable on how big data has the ability to analyze information so quickly and have the ability to draw conclusions from it.

Mayer-Schonberger and Cukier’s Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think provides a light introduction of the concept of big data. It will leave you with a clear knowledge of what big data really is by supporting itself with easy to understand examples. Even if you are not technological savvy or have an interest in computer science, you may still feel slightly intrigued by the enormous possibilities that are ahead of us in the world of big data.

Reference

Mayer-Schönberger, V., & Cukier, K. (2013). Big data: A revolution that will transform how we live, work, and think. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Reading Response #5

The interview with Clay Shirky in “The Disruptive Power of Collaboration,” talks about how society does a really good job at managing scarcity. When something because cheap that’s not worth metering anymore, that causes the real social change to happen. The first set of effects that you see is the idea of open-source software that has an alternate way of making operating system-scale code bases only possible when communicating globally for free. For the most part, new companies do not take profits from old companies; they just make the old companies disappear. This ends up shifting from operating in a position of scarce resources and profits.

To create success from failure, people typically often set out to do Plan A which turns out to be important and more effective because plan A typically doesn’t work. For example, there was Nupedia, which turned out to be a disaster and went out of business in nine months, and then they went to plan B which turned out to be Wikipedia which is a huge success. This all means that you have to give yourself the ability to course correct, and most of the time we see that course correction turned out to be more successful than the initial direction that it was first headed for.

The article, “Plagiarism and lowering of expectations” written by Hollis Phelps discuses how he would never be like the Slovenian philosopher and cultural critic Slavoj Žižek’s. He was a super human genius, someone who could do it all. Žižek ended up being accused of plagiarism which he then became extremely disappointed. The main issue is that “real” scholar’s place a value on novelty, which requires a balance when it comes to practicing citations. I found this interesting because he mentions that if you cite too much then your work is not original, but if you cite too little than your work is not scholarly enough and you can get accused of not knowing the literature. This all raises the issue of how we understand the scholarship of production. We are all human so maybe it is best that we lower our expectations acknowledge our debt to others.

The similarity between Phelps and Shirky’s articles is that we are only human and that we should learn to work together because when doing so you achieve a better outcome. You have to fail in order to achieve success. Most successful businesses and great authors have all failed at one time or another before becoming successful. So if plan A doesn’t necessarily work, there is always a plan B, which typically becomes the better result. We all need help from one another so in order to be victorious we in most cases cannot do it alone, so we should also give those who helped us along the way credit for our great success.

Citations

“The disruptive power of collaboration: An interview with Clay Shirky.” McKinsey & Company. March 2014. <http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/high_tech_telecoms_internet/The_disruptive_power_of_collaboration_An_interview_with_Clay_Shirky?cid=other-eml-alt-mip-mck-oth-1403>.

Phelps, Hollis. “Žižek, Plagiarism and the Lowering of Expectations.” Inside Higher Education. July 17 2014.Web. <https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2014/07/17/%C5%BEi%C5%BEek-plagiarism-and-lowering-expectations-essay>.

Literature Review

Karen Kelly

Knowledge Management

25 September 2014

Digital Age Too Stressful for Undergrads

It is no surprise that today’s undergraduate students are under an extreme amount of pressure. Not only do students have the stress of their classes, but also rising college tuition, and a slow and competitive economy making students question whether or not they will even get a job after graduating. On top of all that stress, the digital world that we live in makes students lives even more stressful. Technology can be very beneficial but it can also be overwhelming due to distraction and information overload.

One way that technology can be stressful to undergrad students is according to Dongping Li’s article Stressful life events and problematic Internet use by adolescent females and males: A mediated moderation model, the internet is an essential tool for communication, information, and entertainment among students. The problem is that even though the internet can be very beneficial to students, there are problems that may be detrimental to them. The internet can create psychological, social, academic, and work difficulties in a student’s life. A number of studies have been done to focus on these problems caused by excessive internet use. Students can become depressed due to social isolation because they are always on the internet and are never engaging in face to face human interaction. It can also be harmful due to cyber bulling on social media cites which really takes a toll on a student’s mental capability.

Scott Deatherage wrote an article called Stress, coping, and Internet use of college students, which examines the cause of stress and how it associates with undergrad students. This article questions time spent on the internet, engaging in internet activity, and problematic internet use statistically predicting the levels of perceived stress above and beyond more traditional coping strategies due to these online motivations. College students highly value the internet and use it for all aspects of their lives including social life, leisure activities, and school work. According to the 2011 Cisco Connected World Technology Report, “80% of college students perceive the internet to be close to air, water, food, and shelter”(Deatherage, 2014). Students who spent time on the internet had a positive impact on their stress levels that was associated with depression and social anxiety. It is understandable how some students use it as a stress reliever because they can bury themselves in all sorts of activities that can be used as a distraction such as social media, videos, gaming, and can search the web for anything and everything. However the internet can have a negative impact due to social isolation and cyber bulling which puts a lot of stress on a student causing a downward spiral academically.

On top of the stress of cyber bullying and social isolation that the Internet causes, information overload can be very stressful to a student. Author David Levy wrote a book called No time to think: Reflections on information technology and contemplative scholarship, he believes that thanks to the digital age and all its new technology, it is now easier than ever to have access to scholarly information. This book argues that with the fast pace lifestyle, it questions when do we ever have time for thoughtful reflection? The loss of time to think is occurring at the same time that scholars, educators, and students have gained tools of great value to scholarship. Without having time to think and gaining easy access to all sorts of information, it can be very overwhelming for a student because it is information overload. This shows another negative side to having access to the internet because we don’t take time to think anymore. We as a society have to have the answers right away and the Internet makes retrieving information easier than ever.

An article called Stress takes a toll on college students, written by Francesca Di Meglio explains the pressure that today’s students have. Between college tuition, slow economy, and technology. Those three things lead to grueling stress, emotional and mental health problems.  A 2012 study by the American College Counseling Association found that 37.4 percent of college students are seeking help due to these psychological problems that were all started from the stress. The stress from technology being so overwhelming distracts students from developing emotional skills which are a sign of emotional maturity. Students lack the ability to stay focused from all the distractions that technology can cause. This article I found to be creditable, however it does not have as much information on why technology is stressful, just mainly on what the signs are when a student is stressed and overwhelmed and offers some information on what you can do to help.

The internet is also harmful for reading comprehension for undergrads because in Benjamin Herold’s article Digital reading poses learning, discusses how researches have documented the struggles with reading comprehension that students face when reading on a screen. It is easy to skim the surface of what you are reading and scroll up or down whenever you please. Students get frustrated when it comes down to being able to understand what they read because when asked to take a reading comprehension exam, they do not do as well because they cannot retain the information. Digital reading is making reading more simplified. Reading digitally on a screen is more difficult to comprehend because most people have a tendency to skim the articles and continuously scroll the bar up and down to see how much they have read and how more they need to read.

These sources are all proof of how technology can be harmful to students. Between the internet’s distractions thanks to social media, browsing the web, videos, and podcasts, it is also information overload, and students reading comprehension is at risk. Students have enough on their plate and there needs to be a way to find a solution that exemplifies stress instead of adding on to it. Technology isn’t going anywhere anytime soon, if ever, so undergraduates need to learn the process of technology and how to use it to its best advantage instead of using it for negative advantages.

References

Deatherage, S., Servaty-Seib, H. L., & Aksoz, I. (2014). Stress, coping, and Internet use of college students. Journal of American College Health, 62(1), 40-46. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2013.843536.

Herold, B. (2014). Digital reading poses learning. Education Digest.

Levy, D. M. (2007). No time to think: Reflections on information technology and contemplative scholarship. Ethics and Information Technology, 9(4), 237-249. doi: 10.1007/s10676-007-9142-6.

Li, D., Zhang, W., Li, X., Zhen, S., & Wang, Y. (2010). Stressful life events and problematic Internet use by adolescent females and males: A mediated moderation model. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(5), 1199-1207. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.031.

Meglio, F. D. (2012, May 10). Stress takes its toll on college students.

Reading Response #4

“Are We Getting Privacy the Wrong Way Round?” written by O’Hara suggests that we should not interfere with other people’s decisions. Freedom has become a “prized political good.” You do have the right to be alone however, this presents an irony for the digital citizens because we now live in a world where privacy is very limited or has given up their privacy for good. Thanks to social media sites and basically everything digital these days, it makes it hard for people to live privately. Facebook especially can lead to embarrassment due to photos that you may have posted that should not have been allowed for the world to see. Posting inappropriate photos can risk lowered job prospects.

Think about it, a company is not going to want to hire you if they see a picture of you chugging a beer bong or peeing outside. It may be funny and entertaining to some people, but a lot of people will judge you and think that it is highly offensive. Your mom and dad also don’t want to see what their tuition money is really going towards. I have experience with this because after I graduated high school and lived on my own for the first time I loved the freedom. A lot of underage drinking was involved and too many inappropriate pictures were leaked online. My friends would take extremely embarrassing pictures of me and post them and then next think you know my mom is calling me telling me that my aunts, uncles, and grandparents all think that I am an alcoholic. My reputation was ruined and it took a while for me to get it back at a good standing. Like what this article is saying, when you forego privacy, their data creates a certain stereotype against an individual that might not be the best reputation to have.

“What is evil to Google” written by Bogost talks about how companies like Google embody a specific notion of progress rather than populism. Evil inhibits this process by advancing their solution for technology. Google has not only outsourced our email, but it has also outsourced our information ethics. Why can’t Google just manage right from wrong? Their concern for evil is a pragmatic matter instead of an ethical one. Most public companies exist to maximize their own benefit, in which Google never claimed otherwise. Google believes that “anything good for Google is good for society.

This article ties in with the article, “Big Data” are we making a big mistake?” because like Google, “Big Data” interests many companies which is now what we call “found data.” The digital exhaust of web searches, credit card information, and mobile numbers are all now being tracked whenever you enter in that information on the internet. Also our source of communication has moved to the internet which now the internet has moved into our phones, cars, and life is completely recorded. Along with “Are we getting privacy the wrong way round” it is saying that we don’t have privacy anymore. Everything we type into the internet is being recorded making it easy for hackers to have access to all our private information. Big Data has arrived but big insights have not. The challenge is to solve problems but gain new answers without making statistical mistakes.

Citations

Bogost, Ian. “What Is ‘Evil’ to Google?” The Atlantic. October 15 2013. <http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/10/what-is-evil-to-google/280573/&gt;.

Harford, Tim. “Big Data: Are We Making a Big Mistake?” Financial Times. March 28 2014. <http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/21a6e7d8-b479-11e3-a09a-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2ziUgQIoH&gt;.

O’Hara, Kieron. “Are we Getting Privacy the Wrong Way Round?” IEEE Internet Computing 17.4 (2013): 89-92.http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6547595.

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Deatherage, S., Servaty-Seib, H. L., & Aksoz, I. (2014). Stress, Coping, and Internet Use of College Students. Journal of American College Health, 62(1), 40-46. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2013.843536

This purpose of this journal article was to examine what is the cause of stress and how it associates with undergrad students. This article questions time spent on the internet, engaging in internet activity, and problematic internet use statistically predicting the levels of perceived stress above and beyond more traditional coping strategies due to these online motivations. Do students use the internet as a coping method for stress? College students highly value the internet and use it for all aspects of their lives including social life, leisure activities, and school work. According to the 2011 Cisco Connected World Technology Report, “80% of college students perceive the internet to be close to air, water, food, and shelter.” Students who spent time on the internet had a positive impact on their stress levels that was associated with depression and social anxiety. I can understand how some students use it as a stress reliever because they can bury themselves in all sorts of activities that can be used as a distraction such as social media, videos, gaming, and can search the web for anything and everything. However the internet can be stressful as well especially when it comes to social media because of cyber bullying, so that can actually be a negative impact for stress.

Fedyrich, L. (2014). Teaching Beyond the Classroom Walls: Pros and Cons of Cyber Learning. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies. Retrieved September 11, 2014, from http://newman.richmond.edu:2627/docview/1515636586?pq-origsite=summon

Technology is here to stay and it is growing more rapidly every day. Whether we like it or not, online education is growing exponentially all over the country. There are many advantages and disadvantages of online learning. This article reviews both sides of the issue in literature reviews. Having knowledge of both sides of the issue prepares you to be open-minded about online learning and prepares you to embrace online learning. Students in today’s society do like to have convenience at their fingertips to be able to do all of their research in one sitting, even though it is overwhelming with all of the information that is out there. This article focuses more on students who take online classes and the pros and cons of taking an online class, but having an online class can be very stressful because you do not have that face to face interaction with the teacher and peers.

Herold, B. (2014). Digital Reading Poses Learning. Education Digest, 44-48. Retrieved September 11, 2014, from http://we4mf3mv5e.search.serialssolutions.com

This article discusses how researches have documented the struggles with reading comprehension that students face when reading on a screen. It is easy to skim the surface of what you are reading and scroll up or down whenever you please. Students get frustrated when it comes down to being able to understand what they read because when it comes down to reading comprehension tests, they do not do as well because they cannot retain the information. Digital reading is making reading more simplified. I have always agreed with this because I struggle with reading on a digital screen. It is more difficult for me to comprehend what I am reading and I am definitely guilty of skimming over the articles and scrolling up and down.

Huang, R., K., & Spector, J. M. (2013). Reshaping learning: Frontiers of learning technology in a global context. Berlin: Springer.

In chapter five, Digital Natives: Exploring the diversity of young people’s experiences with technology, focuses on a study that was to help understand the motivation, practices, and attitudes of the younger generation in their views to technology. This book presented eight different student case studies all between the ages of 19-21 that explored their use of technology for their everyday life and academically. After reading these case studies, some of the students used technology across all aspects of their academic life and actually preferred to study using technology. Some made limited use of technology and actually preferred to hand write notes on paper and read actual textbooks as to reading online because they found handwriting and reading an actually was more beneficial to helping retain information better. I think this was a great read because it just goes to show that even some younger students who are considered “digital natives” still prefer to learn the old fashioned way. It just depends on the student and what suits them on their way of studying.

Jackson, S. (n.d.). The Texture of the Age: Adam Gopnik On How the Internet Gets Inside Us | Spotlight on Digital Media and Learning. Retrieved September 18, 2014, from http://spotlight.macfound.org/blog/entry/the-texture-of-the-age-adam-gopnik-on-how-the-internet-gets-inside-us/

Adam Gopnik has conducted a survey on how the internet may be changing all of us. Howard Rheingold who is a social media guru debates on how the internet does in fact change our way of thinking. He conducted a complex of ideas on how the internet makes us reflect more deeply and broadly than we did before the internet was around. It is so easy to have all sorts of information out there at our finger tips causing us to think more critically. We broaden our horizons with the unlimited amount of new knowledge that we learn on the internet. We now have a new way of organizing data and connecting users to anything and everything.

Levy, D. M. (2007). No time to think: Reflections on information technology and contemplative scholarship. Ethics and Information Technology, 9(4), 237-249. doi: 10.1007/s10676-007-9142-6

Thanks to the digital age and all its new technology, it is now easier than ever to have access to scholarly information. This book argues that with the fast pace lifestyle, it questions when do we ever have time for thoughtful reflection? The loss of time to think is occurring at the same time that scholars, educators, and students have gained tools of great value to scholarship. Without having time to think and gaining easy access to all sorts of information, it can be very overwhelming for a student because it is information overload. This shows another negative side to having access to the internet because we don’t take time to think anymore. We have to have the answers right away and were now used to that because we gain all our information from the internet.

Li, D., Zhang, W., Li, X., Zhen, S., & Wang, Y. (2010). Stressful life events and problematic Internet use by adolescent females and males: A mediated moderation model. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(5), 1199-1207. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.031

The internet is an essential tool for communication, information, and entertainment among students. The problem is that even though the internet can be very beneficial to students, there are problems that may be detrimental to them. The internet can create psychological, social, school, and work difficulties in someone’s life. A number of studies have been done to focus on these problems caused by excessive internet use. Students can become depressed due to social isolation because they are always on the internet and are never engaging in face to face human interaction. It can also be harmful due to cyber bulling on social media cites which really takes a toll on a student’s mental capability.

Meglio, F. D. (2012, May 10). Stress Takes Its Toll on College Students. Retrieved September 11, 2014, from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-05-10/stress-takes-its-toll-on-college-students.

This article explains the pressure that today’s students have. Between college tuition, slow economy, and technology. Those three things lead to grueling stress, emotional and mental health problems. A 2012 study by the American College Counseling Association found that 37.4 percent of college students are seeking help due to these psychological problems that were all started from the stress. The stress from technology being so overwhelming distracts students from developing emotional skills which are a sign of emotional maturity. Students lack the ability to stay focused from all the distractions that technology can cause. This article I found to be creditable, however it does not have as much information on why technology is stressful, just mainly on what the signs are when a student is stressed and overwhelmed and offers some information on what you can do to help.

Mercer, M. (2014, September 2). Back to pen, paper and the personal? Richmond Times Dispatch.

I found this article in the newspaper in the Richmond Times Dispatch and found it interesting because it concerns the Cleveland Brown experiment, which is simply instead of taking notes on a laptop; the students took notes by writing stuff down. When you write stuff down, you have a better chance of remembering it in your brain. School’s today rush to put electronics in student’s hands because it is important that students learn from an early age that technology does in fact dominate our lives. However, writing by hand and reading traditional books are better for students learning capabilities. This is a credible source due to the fact that it was published in the Richmond Times Dispatch and they list multiple researchers that have conducted studies that prove what they are saying is believable and agreeable.

Trushell, J., Byrne, K., & Simpson, R. (2011). Cheating behaviours, the Internet and Education undergraduate students. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, No-No. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00424.x

This article discusses cheating behaviors that undergraduates may have due to the fact that it is so easy to do when using the internet. Surveys found that the internet did not associate with cheating behaviors. Students who reported multiple instances of cheating behaviors were found that their ICT capabilities were higher than their peers but did have a tendency to report less frequent use of the internet for school work. Personally, I think the internet makes it more challenging to cheat because it is easy to find out if a student’s work has been plagiarized. Yes, you have all sorts of answers and information on the internet but it is so much harder to get away with it.

Reading Response #3

Reading Response #3

Does Digital Scholarship have a Future?– Edward Ayers
“Introduction” from Knowledge Among Men– Dillon Ripley

There are many scholars who are willing to commit themselves to digital scholarship, however scholarly innovation has been domesticated with the web having the ability to bring a lowered sense of excitement, possibility, and urgency than it used to when it was first introduced in the 90’s. These two deficiencies diminish a sense of weakness, meaning that scholars are unwilling to take risks which limit the impact and excitement that is generated by innovative projects. To further understand this we need to take a moment to broaden the view of the scholarly enterprise. Digital scholarship is built around special contributions to scholarly conversations and debates, research, writing, books, journal articles, research papers, etc. For my DSL project, I studied the History Engine. The History Engine gives students the opportunity to learn and think like a historian and create a more intimate experience with the process of history. They also examine primary documents, and then place those documents in a larger historical context using secondary sources. Their sources are to be read publically which results in a fast growing collection of historical articles that paint a picture of what America has been like all through its history. The history engine is available through our online scholar database.

Other examples of digital-only environment are online journals such as Southern Spaces and Journal of Southern Religion and in digital meeting places such as Common-place and History News Network. These different projects show digital possibilities in strategic ways that provide new opportunities that do not ask the scholars to abandon the type of thinking and writing that they have always used and know for generations. Blogs and online conversations are so advanced with deep scholarly conversations that their impact is measured immediately by the number of downloads, views, forwards, tweets, and comments that they have. Ayers suggest that digital scholarship needs to have a greater focus and sense of purpose of collective identity. This needs to be presented in a lesser series of isolated experiments and more self-conscious of a higher education and can integrate vast scholarly literature into more useful forms which can broaden our temporal comprehension. Digital scholarship needs to do things that simply cannot be done on paper.

According to Dillion Ripley in “Introduction” from Knowledge Among Men, he talks about how “the laws of the universe are somewhat parallel to those of the world of life and even to those of the realm of the mind” (1966.) He thinks that knowledge depends on the structure of theory and that we need to have evidence. To study objects is a lot more demanding than if you just read about them. Colleges and universities should include museum objects as a vital part of the higher education for students. By doing this, students can study that “elusive subliminal threshold of interest,” (1966). This studies how to be interested in anything and everything.

Works Cited

Ayers, Edward. “Does Digital Scholarship Have a Future?” Educause Review Online. August 5 2013.Web. <http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/does-digital-scholarship-have-future&gt;.

History Engine [Scholarly project]. (2008). In History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research. Retrieved September 16, 2014, fromhttp://historyengine.richmond.edu/

Ripley, S. Dillon. “Introduction.” Knowledge among Men.Simon and Schuster, 1966. 7-12.

DSL Project-History Engine

DSL Project- History Engine

Engine

http://historyengine.richmond.edu/

My topic that I chose for the DSL Project was the History Engine. The History Engine gives students the opportunity to learn and think like a historian and create a more intimate experience with the process of history. With that said the audience for this would be students because this tool allows them to do the work such as researching, writing, and publishing that historians do. They also examine primary documents, and then place those documents in a larger historical context using secondary sources. This prepares their sources to be read publically. The result in this is a fast growing collection of historical articles that paint a picture of the life in America throughout its history. This can all be available to our online scholar database, teachers, and also the public.

The Engine also allows undergraduate professors to introduce a more creative approach when teaching their students while being able to maintain academic standards. The projects focus is to focus on historical education and research for students and teachers in individual snippets of the daily life throughout our history from the broadest national event to the simplest local occurrence.

I found this interesting because these episodes are constructed by the students and are found in the university and in local archives. Students then can post their entries in the cumulative database which gives their classmates and other participants around the country the ability to read and interact with their work. The cumulative database also allows easy access to search other websites, but also carefully screening the process part of the library staff, archivists, professors, and teaching assistants. Only registered students can contribute to the History Engine making each episode carefully checked for accuracy making the database provide a previously untapped resource for researchers and academics.

History Engine [Scholarly project]. (2008). In History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research. Retrieved September 16, 2014, from http://historyengine.richmond.edu/